I have another book to add to my book reviews, its a book titled - Ultimate Guide Plumbing, 4th Edition, written by creative homeowner.
There was a section in the book that I think many people would find useful, below is an excerpt:
"Fifty years ago the gasket material used to set toilets was plumbers putty. The plumber simply rolled out a quantity of putty and pressed it onto the flange. Putty, however, hardens with age, which can lead to leaks. The reason putty worked at all was because toilet bowls back then had four closed bolts instead of the two used today. Two were inverted, through the flange, as they are on modern toilets, but two more bolts located near the front of the flange anchored the bowl to the floor. Four bolts allowed very little flexing.
Wax. Beeswax rings, called bowl wax gaskets, eventually replaced putty as the proffered gasket material for toilets. (You'll also see the rings referred to as wax seals.) These wax rings were able to accommodate the slight flexing that occurs between a toilet and floor, so for generations bowl wax gaskets have been and still are the standard. You can buy gaskets in 3- or -4-inch diameter sizes by about 1 inch thick. They are inexpensive and durable-a hard combination to beat.
Still, improvements are always in the works. One improvement was to incorporate a plastic, funnel-like insert in the traditional wax gasket. The insert was designed to deliver the water well past the flange surface, thereby elimination leaks between floor flange and the wax. These special step-proof gaskets are ofte used when a gasket is installed on a concrete slab.
Rubber. Next in the progression came flexible rubber gaskets, which when compressed, block the lateral migration of water. Rubber gaskets can also reseal themselves once disturbed and they're reusable. They are sold in several thicknesses to accommodate a variety of flange heights relative to floor height, and you need to buy precisely the right thickness (unlike wax gaskets, which are more forgiving of small height differences). If a rubber gasket is even a little too thick the toilet won't rest on the floor. If it's too thin, it won't seal.
Measuring for rubber. Wax gaskets come in standard thickness, and easily conform to slight job-site differences (flooring thickness and the like). On most cases just knowing the horn length is good enough. To get the right thickness for a rubber flange gasket, you need to lay the straightedge across the base of the toilet and measure the length of the horn. Subtract the thickness of the toilet flange (minus any finish flooring such as tile). and add 1/8 to 1/4 inch. The result is the ideal gasket thickness. Buy one as close to that thickness as possible. Measuring is not difficult, but it is bothersome. For that reason, you should use rubber gaskets only when the toilet is likely to be bumped frequently, as it might be when used by a physically handicapped person. A rubber gasket is better able to reseal itself after being disturbed."
The book goes into much more detail about installation jobs and includes many diagrams and pictures along the way.